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ENG 102, Throesch, Allegheny: Integrity & Citations

      academic integrity & citations

Why cite your sources

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1. To give credit

Your writing is built upon the research of others. It is respectful and fair to give them credit for their hard work.

2. To support your arguments

By referencing or citing the work of scholars and other professionals, you demonstrate that your research and conclusions are based on reliable information and supported by others.

3. Provide a path

Citations provide a trail to the original research or idea and help your readers find more relevant resources.

4. To avoid plagiarism

In most academic environments, including CCAC, plagiarism is a serious offense that can result in academic discipline. Plagiarism is when you do not properly cite any direct quote, paraphrase, summary, or fact from your research, whether on purpose or accidentally. To avoid accidentally plagiarizing, take detailed notes and always include where the information came from.

To review whether or not you are plagiarising, and when you need to cite, take a look at the following flowchart from EasyBib.

Citation flow chart

CC: BY-NC-SA, EasyBib


MLA style, developed by the Modern Language Association, is used for English, foreign languages and general topics. MLA requires parenthetical citations within the text and a corresponding bibliography or works cited list at the end of the paper.


APA Style ManualAPA style, developed by the American Psychological Association, is used for hard sciences and social sciences, including education. APA uses parenthetical citations within the text and a corresponding bibliography or works cited list at the end of the paper.


Chicago Style HandbookChicago style is sometimes used for history and the humanities. Chicago style uses superscript numbers within the text to refer readers to corresponding footnotes at the end of the page. A bibliography is generally required as well.

Library Databases

Many of the Library Databases provide Citation assistance for the articles.  In the Tool area, look for features like "Cite" or "Cite Now!"

Do a final check to make certain that it has correct formatting, punctuation and content!


NoodleToolsNoodleTools is an online tool for creating works cited lists. Use it with MLA, APA, or Chicago styles. It helps you create your citations, and generates your bibliography. Create folders and store citations for multiple projects.
CCAC provides NoodleTools to current students, faculty and staff.  Contact a librarian if you have any questions. Show me how

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