As many document types as are appropriate will be assigned to each record.
CINAHL document types represent the type of publication being indexed (journal, book, audiovisual, pamphlet, software, dissertation, or research instrument). They can also describe the format of the individual item being indexed (e.g., editorial, research, review) or indicate the presence of some special data (e.g., exam questions, care plan, questionnaire).
Research studies published with one or more commentaries are indexed as a single citation. The appropriate document types (e.g., research, commentary, and response) are assigned by the indexer.
The year the document type was added is indicated in parentheses. If nothing is indicated, the document type was added prior to 1983.
Document Types Include:
ABSTRACT (92) - indicates material indexed is an abstract. It is used for abstracts of presentations at congresses, conferences, symposia, etc. Use with the document type Bibliography for annotated bibliographies. For materials about abstracting, see CINAHL subject heading: ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING.
ACCREDITATION (97) - indicates document containing information about compliance with accreditation requirements
ADVICE AND REFERRAL WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that gives advice and referrals
ALGORITHM (95) - indicates the presence of an algorithm. For materials about algorithms, see CINAHL subject heading: ALGORITHMS.
ANECDOTE - indicates an informal narrative.
AUDIOVISUAL (93) - indicates an audiovisual [listed in electronic versions only]. For materials about audiovisuals, see CINAHL subject heading: AUDIOVISUALS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY - indicates the presence of a substantive list of books, audiovisuals, articles, documents, publications, etc., usually on a single topic or related topics. For annotated bibliographies, use with the document type Abstract. For discussions about bibliographies, see CINAHL subject heading: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES.
BIOGRAPHY (85) - indicates a history or an account of the personal and/or professional life of an individual.
BOOK (85) - indicates a book.
BOOK CHAPTER (93) - indicates a chapter, section, or article within a book
BOOK REVIEW (08) - indicates a book review.
BRIEF ITEM (95) - indicates material of less than one page.
CARE PLAN - indicates the presence of a care plan -- i.e., a written plan developed to assure consistent care of an individual patient or for a specific disease. For materials about or how to develop care plans, see CINAHL subject headings: NURSING CARE PLANS or PATIENT CARE PLANS.
CARTOON (95) - indicates a cartoon.
CASE STUDY - indicates a review of a particular condition, disease, or administrative problem. Includes case reports.
CEU (85) - indicates material that has been approved for continuing education credit. May be dated or non-dated. CEU material will be double indexed under the CINAHL subject heading EDUCATION, CONTINUING (CREDIT) as well as under the appropriate subject terms.
CHAT GROUPS (01) - indicates registries on Internet-based communication servers that allow subscribers sharing a common interest to communicate with each other in real time
CLASSIFICATION TERM (98) - indicates the presence of a NANDA Nursing Diagnosis, IOWA Nursing Intervention or Outcome, or SABA Home Health Care Nursing Diagnosis or Intervention classification term and scope note, together with a CINAHL editorial search suggestion
CLINICAL INNOVATIONS (97) - indicates document which describes new approaches to patient care
CLINICAL TRIAL (98) - indicates the research study is a clinical trial. Coordinate with the document type Research.
CODE OF ETHICS (98) - indicates material indexed is a professional code of ethics, or indicates the presence of a professional code of ethics or conduct. For discussions about professional codes of ethics or conduct, see CINAHL subject headings ETHICS; ETHICS, DENTAL; ETHICS, MEDICAL; or ETHICS, NURSING.
COMMENTARY - indicates a commentary -- i.e., an evaluation or analysis of a previously published article.
COMMERCIAL WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that sells or promotes goods or services for a for-profit business
COMPUTER PROGRAM (86) - indicates the presence of a written computer program. For materials about computer programs, see CINAHL subject heading: SOFTWARE or specifics.
CONFERENCE (05) - indicates material indexed contains information about upcoming conferences and the organization involved, if appropriate. For material about conference, see CINAHL subject heading: CONGRESSES AND CONFERENCES or specifics.
CONSUMER/PATIENT TEACHING MATERIALS (97) - indicates the presence of various teaching/educational/learning materials for the consumer or patient. Use Teaching Materials for materials used for student education or staff development. For discussions about consumer/patient teaching materials, see CINAHL subject headings: TEACHING MATERIALS and PATIENT EDUCATION.
CORRECTED ARTICLE (93) - indicates an article that has been republished in order to correct, amplify, or restore text and data from the originally published article.
CRITICAL PATH (95) - indicates material indexed is a critical path or care map, or indicates the presence of a critical path or care map. For discussions about critical paths or care maps, see CINAHL subject heading: CRITICAL PATH.
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGES (97) - indicates the presence of images produced by radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, or other diagnostic imaging procedures.
DIRECTORIES (96) - indicates names and addresses of various persons, agencies, schools, and other institutions. For discussions about directories, see CINAHL subject heading: INFORMATION RESOURCES.
DOCTORAL DISSERTATION (90) - indicates a doctoral dissertation or thesis. For discussions about dissertations, see CINAHL subject heading: THESES AND DISSERTATIONS.
DRUGS (98) - indicates the presence of a description of a drug; includes nursing and other healthcare personnel considerations and patient information
EDITORIAL - indicates an editorial. Includes guest editorials and presidents' messages.
EQUATIONS & FORMULAS (97) - indicates the presence of mathematical equations or formulas.
EVIDENCE-BASED CARE SHEET (05) - indicates material indexed is a 1 to 2 page document incorporating the latest evidence, statistics, research and references providing concise and comprehensive evidence-based overviews of clinical issues.
EXAM QUESTIONS - indicates the presence of CEU questions or test questions that are designed to test your knowledge. Includes quizzes.
FORMS - indicates the presence of sample forms. For materials about forms, see CINAHL subject heading: DOCUMENTATION or specifics.
GAMES (97) - indicates the presence of a word search, crossword puzzle, maze, or other type of game. For discussions about games, see CINAHL subject heading: GAMES.
GLOSSARY (96) - indicates lists of words with definitions.
HISTORICAL MATERIAL (92) - indicates material (or a portion thereof) that has been reprinted from an earlier work of historical interest.
INDIVIDUAL TESTIMONIAL WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that contains individual testimonials [listed in electronic versions only].
INFORMATION WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that contains information on various topics [listed in electronic versions only].
INTERVIEW (85) - indicates the presence of the published record of a conversation between an interviewer and one or more subjects based on topics posed by the interviewer.
JOURNAL ARTICLE - indicates material published in a journal. For discussions about journals, see CINAHL subject heading: SERIAL PUBLICATIONS.
LEGAL CASES (97) - indicates the inclusion of a court case or court cases.
LETTER (91) - indicates letters to the editor.
LISTSERVS (01) - indicates email-based services used primarily to broadcast information of interest to subscribers. Some listservs permit their subscribers to broadcast responses to the same subscriber list
MASTERS THESIS (98) - indicates a master's thesis or dissertation. For discussion about theses, see CINAHL subject heading: THESES AND DISSERTATIONS.
META ANALYSIS (09) - indicates the presence of a quantitative analysis of two or more independent studies that integrate and synthesize the findings and describe the features of the studies that contribute to variation in their results. Coordinate with the document type Research. For materials about meta analysis, see CINAHL subject heading: META ANALYSIS.
NURSE PRACTICE ACTS (96) - indicates material indexed is a nurse practice act or indicates the presence of a nurse practice act within the material. Use Practice Acts for other than nurse practice acts. For discussions about nurse practice acts, see CINAHL subject heading: NURSE PRACTICE ACTS
NURSING DIAGNOSES (88) - indicates material that contains nursing diagnoses as a substantive part of a care plan, case study, or in relation to the subject being discussed. For materials about nursing diagnosis, see CINAHL subject heading: NURSING DIAGNOSIS or specifics.
NURSING INTERVENTIONS (94) - indicates material that contains nursing interventions as a substantive part of a care plan, case study, or in relation to the subject being discussed. For materials about nursing interventions, see CINAHL subject heading: NURSING INTERVENTIONS or specifics.
OBITUARY (85) - indicates an obituary.
OTHER (94) - indicates miscellaneous material not yet categorized.
OVERALL (95) - indicates material being indexed contains multiple articles or chapters on the same topic.
PAMPHLET (85) - indicates a pamphlet.
PAMPHLET CHAPTER (93) - indicates a chapter, section, or article within a pamphlet [listed in electronic versions only].
PICTORIAL - indicates the presence of photographs, pictures, or medical illustrations. Not for photographs of the author.
POETRY (96) - indicates a poem or poems.
PRACTICE ACTS (97) - indicates material indexed is a practice act or indicates the presence of a practice act within the material. Use document type Nurse Practice Acts for nurse practice acts.
PRACTICE GUIDELINES (97) - indicates the presence of practice guidelines. For materials about practice guidelines, see CINAHL subject heading: PRACTICE GUIDELINES.
PROCEEDINGS (92) - indicates collection of papers presented at conferences, symposia, congresses, meetings, etc. Such papers may be published in full or in an edited or revised form. For collection of abstracts of papers presented at such conferences, coordinate with document type Abstract.
PROTOCOL (84) - indicates the presence of a protocol -- i.e., written plans specifying the methods to be followed in performing various procedures or in conducting research. For materials about protocols, see CINAHL subject headings: PROTOCOLS, NURSING PROTOCOLS, or RESEARCH PROTOCOLS.
QUESTIONNAIRE/SCALE (03) - indicates the presence of an instrument that is a series of questions or that requires the marking of a rating along a set interval. For articles about questionnaires or scales, see CINAHL subject headings: QUESTIONNAIRES or SCALES.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (00) - indicates the presence of one or more questions posed by an author, editor, or reader that are subsequently answered in the text.
QUICK LESSON (05) - Indicates material indexed is a 2-page document based on a comprehensive literature review and includes a description, etiology, signs & symptoms, clinical assessment, lab tests, treatment goals, food for thought, red flags and what to tell patients.
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL (11) - indicates the research study is a randomized controlled trial or a randomized clinical trial. Coordinate with the document type Research.
RESEARCH - indicates an original (includes SECONDARY ANALYSIS), complete research study containing data collection, methodology, discussion of results, etc. For materials about or how to conduct a research study, see specific CINAHL subject headings, such as CLINICAL NURSING RESEARCH or RESEARCH, MEDICAL.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT (95) - indicates material indexed is a research instrument. To indicate the use of instruments in a body of work, search electronically using the particular name. For material about research instruments, see CINAHL subject heading: RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS or specifics
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT UTILIZATION (05) - indicates material indexed is a record containing information about studies using a specific research instrument and includes the purpose/variable measured, sample population, methodology, other instruments, items & questions and the source for the instrument.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VALIDATION (05) - indicates material indexed is a record containing information about studies validating the use of a specific research instrument and includes the purpose/variable measured, sample population, methodology, other instruments, items & questions and the source for the instrument.
RESEARCH TERM DEFINITION (01) - indicates a record containing a definition and/or description of a term used in the research process along with an example of its application.
RESPONSE - indicates material written in response to a commentary or to another response.
REVIEW (88) - indicates a review of the published literature that can cover a wide range of subject matter of various levels of completeness or comprehensiveness. The presence of research findings or case reports does not preclude designation as a review.
SEARCH STRATEGY (03) - indicates the presence of a pre-formulated search strategy including subject headings, subheadings, document types, and other limits designed to lead to a final result.
SOFTWARE (92) - indicates a piece of educational software [listed in electronic versions only]. For materials about software, see CINAHL subject heading: SOFTWARE or specifics.
STANDARDS (92) - indicates a formal standard of practice or position paper issued by a professional organization. For materials discussing practice standards, see CINAHL subheading "/standards" with appropriate subject heading(s).
STATISTICS - indicates the presence of statistical data applicable outside the context of a research study. For materials about statistics, see CINAHL subject heading: STATISTICS.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (98) - indicates a research process in which a concept is identified and the research which has studied it is analyzed and evaluated. The results of this research are synthesized to present the current state of knowledge regarding the concept. Includes integrated or integrative reviews. Coordinate with the document type Research. For materials about systematic reviews, see CINAHL subject heading: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.
TABLES/CHARTS (85) - indicates graphs, data in tabular form, or diagrams.
TEACHING MATERIALS - indicates the presence of various teaching/educational/learning materials for students, health personnel, or individuals in various other disciplines. Use Consumer/Patient Teaching Materials for materials used to educate the consumer or patient. For discussions about teaching materials, see CINAHL subject headings: TEACHING MATERIALS or TEACHING MATERIALS, CLINICAL.
TRACINGS (95) - indicates a graphic record of the image produced by an instrument capable of making a visual representation of movement. Included here are ECG, EEG, EMG tracings, and waveforms.
WEBSITE (98) - indicates material is a description of a website or contains a description of a website.
Source: CINAHL Plus with Full Text | Full Text Nursing Journals | EBSCO. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/cinahl-databases/cinahl-plus-with-full-text
There are 68 topical subheadings that can be linked to CINAHL subject headings. CINAHL subject headings can be modified by the addition of these subheadings, thereby providing more specific access.
It is Cinahl's policy to assign up to three separate subheadings to a single subject heading. If more than three are required to cover the article adequately, the heading will be assigned as a major term without any subheadings. The appropriate subheadings may then be assigned to a minor subject heading.
Not all subheadings can be used with all subject headings; for example, the subheading "/prevention and control" is meaningless linked to the subject heading NURSING PROTOCOLS. The tree numbers of subject headings with which a particular subheading can be combined are identified in parentheses in the topical subheadings list.
Subheadings may be searched in full or with two-letter codes. Although many of the codes match the MeSH subheading abbreviations, there are exceptions, so it would be advisable to check first.
The year the subheading was established is indicated in parentheses. If nothing is indicated, the subheading was added prior to 1983. In addition, the tree branch of subject terms, where the subheadings may apply, is found at the end of each subheading description in parentheses.
In order to avoid incorrect subject heading/subheading combinations, check the Thesaurus scope notes before selecting search terms. For example, articles will be found under the term NURSING COSTS but not under NURSING CARE/economics.
Topical Subheadings Include:
ABNORMALITIES or AB (83) - Used with organs, regions, and tissues for congenital defects. (A1-10, A14)
ADMINISTRATION or AM - Used for administrative structure and management. Use only for selected headings in the I2 tree. (I2, L, N2-4)
ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE or AD - Used with drugs and selected plant products for dosage forms, routes of administration, frequency and duration of administration, quantity of medication, and the effects of these factors. (B6, D)
ADVERSE EFFECTS or AE - Used with drugs, chemicals, plants, and manufactured products for undesirable reactions occurring in normal usage or accepted dosage. Also used for adverse effects or complications of diagnostic, therapeutic, anesthetic, surgical, or other procedures. Excludes contraindications for which "contraindications" is used. Excludes poisoning for which "poisoning" is used. (B6, D, E, F4, G3, H, I3, J)
ANALOGS AND DERIVATIVES or AA (92) - Used with drugs and chemicals for substances that share the same parent molecule or have similar electronic structures but differ by the addition or substitution of other atoms or molecules. It is used when the specific chemical heading is not available. (D3, D6, D14-18, D20-23)
ANALYSIS or AN - Used for the identification or quantitative determination of a substance or its constituents and metabolites, and the chemical analysis of tissues, tumors, body fluids (except for blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine), food, organisms, and plants. Includes the analysis of air, water, or other environmental carriers. The concept applies to both methodology and results. For analysis of substances in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine the specific subheading designating the fluid is used. (A2-16, B1, B3-6, C4, D, G3, J2)
ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY or AH (83) - Used with organs, regions, and tissues for normal descriptive anatomy and histology. (A1-10, A14-16, B2, B6)
ANTAGONISTS AND INHIBITORS or AI (85) - Used with chemicals, drugs, and endogenous substances to indicate substances or agents which counteract their biological effects by any mechanism. (D1-23)
BLOOD or BL (99) - Used for the presence or analysis of substances in the blood; also for examination of, or changes in, the blood in disease state. It excludes serodiagnosis, for which the subheading "diagnosis" is used, and serology, for which "immunology" is used. (B2, C, D1-24, F3)
BLOOD SUPPLY or BS (02) - Used for arterial, capillary, and venous systems of an organ or region if the specific heading for the vessel does not exist. It includes blood flow through the organ. (A1-5, A8-10, A14, C4)
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID or CF (04) - Used for the presence or analysis of substances in the cerebrospinal fluid; also for examination of or changes in cerebrospinal fluid in disease states. (B2, C, D1-24, F3)
CHEMICALLY INDUCED or CI (83) - Used with diseases, syndromes, abnormalities, or symptoms caused by chemical substances. (C1-20, C23, F3)
CLASSIFICATION or CL (83) - Used for taxonomic or other systematic or hierarchical classification systems. (A11, A15, B-N)
COMPLICATIONS or CO (83) - Used with diseases to indicate conditions that co-exist or follow. (C, F3)
CONTRAINDICATIONS or CT (93) - Used with drugs, chemicals, plants and plant products, and biological and physical agents in any disease or physical state that might render their use improper, undesirable, or inadvisable. Used also with contraindicated diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, anesthetic, surgical, or other procedures. (B6, D, E)
DEFICIENCY or DF (98) - Used with endogenous and exogenous substances which are absent or in diminished amount relative to the normal requirement of an organism or a biologic system. Use only for selected headings in the D1 and D11 trees. (D1, D8, D11-12)
DIAGNOSIS or DI - Used for all aspects of diagnosis and assessment, including examination and differential diagnosis. Excludes screening for which "prevention and control" is used; excludes prognosis for which "prognosis" is used. For radiographic diagnosis use "radiography"; for ultrasonic diagnosis use "ultrasonography." (C, F3)
DIAGNOSTIC USE or DU (92) - Used with chemical compounds, drugs, and physical agents for studies of the clinical function of an organ, or for the diagnosis of diseases. (B6, D)
DIET THERAPY or DH (83) - Used with disease headings for dietary or nutritional management. Excludes nutritional support such as enteral feeding and parenteral nutrition for which "therapy" is used. Excludes use of vitamin or mineral supplements for which "drug therapy" is used. (C, F3)
DRUG EFFECTS or DE (83) - Used with organs, regions, tissues, or organisms and physiological and psychological processes for the effects of drugs. Use with the D tree for endogenous substances only. (A, B1, B3-6, D, F1-2, G4-11)
DRUG THERAPY or DT - Used with disease headings for the treatment of disease by the administration of drugs or chemicals. (C, F3)
ECONOMICS or EC (83) - Used for the economic aspects of any subject, including all aspects of financial management and fund raising. (C-E, F3-4, G1-3, H-J, L, N2-4)
EDUCATION or ED - Used for education or teaching about diseases, procedures, services, programs, and other selected headings. Used for education and training in various disciplines and of various classes of people. Use available precoordinated education subject headings for formal educational programs. Use only for selected headings in the I2 tree. (C, E-N, P3)
EMBRYOLOGY or EM (97) - Used with organs, regions, and animal headings for embryologic and fetal development. It is used also with diseases for embryologic factors contributing to postnatal disorders. (A1-10, A14, B2, B6, C)
EPIDEMIOLOGY or EP (91) - Used for the distribution and frequency of diseases, injuries, and other health-related events and their causes in a desired population. Includes incidence, prevalence, endemic, and epidemic outbreaks. Excludes mortality for which "mortality" is used. (C, F1, F3, G3)
EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES or ES - Used with diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, specialties/disciplines, and other selected headings for the development, utilization, or modification of apparatus, instruments, or equipment. (E1-6, F2, F4, G1-3, H, J1, L)
ETHICAL ISSUES or EI (98) - Used with disciplines, procedures, personnel, and other selected headings for ethical aspects. (C-N)
ETHNOLOGY or EH (96) - Used with diseases and selected terms for ethnic, cultural, anthropological, or racial aspects, and with geographic headings to indicate the place of origin of a group of people. (C, F1, F3, Z)
ETIOLOGY or ET (83) - Used with medical and social problems for causation. Includes environmental factors, microorganisms, life style, etc. Also used with nursing diagnoses. (C, F3, G3, I1, P)
EVALUATION or EV - Used with non-disease headings (e.g., behavior mechanisms, physiological processes, programs, disciplines, classes of persons, facilities, and services) for evaluation and assessment. (E, F1-2, F4, G2-12, H, I, J1, K-N, P)
FAMILIAL AND GENETIC or FG (90) - Used for discussion of genetic basis of disease; diseases occurring in family groups due to environmental factors, including infection and common dietary habits; includes hereditary disease. (C, F1, F3)
HISTORY or HI - Used for the historical aspects of any subject. (B6, C-F, G1-3, H-N)
IMMUNOLOGY or IM (99) - Used for immunologic studies of tissues, organs, microorganisms, fungi, viruses, and animals. It includes immunologic aspects of diseases but not immunologic procedures used for diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic purposes, for which "diagnosis," "prevention and control," or "therapy" are used. The concept is also used for chemicals as antigens or haptens. (A2-16, B, C, D1-24, F3, G4-G5, G7-10)
INJURIES or IN - Used with anatomic headings for wounds and injuries. (A1-10, A14-15)
INNERVATION or IR (02) - Used with organs, regions, or tissues for their nerve supply. (A1-5, A7, A9-10, A14)
LEGISLATION AND JURISPRUDENCE or LJ - Used for laws, statutes, ordinances, government regulations, legal issues, and court decisions. (B6, C-F, G1-3, H-J, L-N)
MANPOWER or MA (83) - Used with disciplines and programs for the demand, supply, distribution, recruitment, and use of personnel. (G1-2, I, J1, L, N2-4)
METABOLISM or ME (92) - Used with organs, cells, organisms, and diseases for biochemical changes and metabolism. It is also used with drugs and chemicals for catabolic changes. (A2-16, B-D, F3)
METHODS or MT (83) - Used with techniques, procedures, and programs for methods. (E1-6, F2, F4, G1-3, H, J1, L, N)
MICROBIOLOGY or MI (97) - Used with organs, animals, and higher plants and with diseases for microbiologic factors or studies. (A, B1-2, B6, C, F3, J2)
MORTALITY or MO (95) - Used with human diseases for mortality statistics. (C, E1-4, F3)
NURSING or NU (84) - Used with diseases and certain physiological processes for nursing care and techniques. Includes nursing care in diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive procedures. Do not use with "Care" headings in the E2 tree. (C, E, F3, G8, P3)
ORGANIZATIONS or OG (83) - Used with disciplines and classes of persons for associated organizations, societies, agencies, etc. Prefer use with disciplines. (C, E, G2, H, I1-2, K-M, N2)
PATHOLOGY or PA (95) - Used for organ, tissue, or cell structure in disease states. (A1-11, A14-16, C, F3)
PHARMACODYNAMICS or PD (87) - Used with drugs and exogenously administered chemical substances for their actions on tissues and organisms; includes effects upon metabolism, acceleration, or inhibition of biological processes, and the mechanisms of action. (B6, D)
PHARMACOKINETICS or PK (00) - Used for the mechanism, dynamics, and kinetics of exogenous chemical and drug absorption, biotransformation, distribution, release, transport, uptake, and elimination as a function of dosage, extent, and rate of metabolic process. (B6, D1-23, D25-26)
PHYSIOLOGY or PH - Used with organs, tissues, and cells for their normal function. Also used with physical processes and biochemical substances, endogenously produced, for their physiological role. (A, B, D, G4-11, I3)
PHYSIOPATHOLOGY or PP - Used with organs, tissues, cell structures, and disease states for disordered function. (A, C, F3)
POISONING or PO (84) - Used with drugs, chemicals, plants, and industrial materials for human or animal poisoning, acute or chronic, whether the poisoning is accidental, occupational, suicidal, by medication error, or by environmental exposure. (B6, D, J2)
PREVENTION AND CONTROL or PC (83) - Used with disease headings for increasing disease resistance, control of transmission agents, prevention and control of environmental hazards, and prevention and control of social factors leading to disease. Includes immunization and screening. (C, F1, F3, G3, I1)
PROGNOSIS or PR (96) - Prospect of survival and recovery from a disease as anticipated from the usual course of that disease or indicated by special features of a particular case. (C, F3)
PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS or PF (83) - Used with diseases, psychological processes, techniques, and named groups for psychological, psychiatric, psychosomatic, social, behavioral, and emotional aspects. (C, E1-6, F3, G, I, M, N1-2)
RADIATION EFFECTS or RE (92) - Used for the effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon organisms, organs, tissues, and physiologic processes. It includes the effects of irradiation on drugs, chemicals, and food. (A, B1, B3-6, D, G4-12, J2)
RADIOGRAPHY or RA (83) - Used with organs, regions, and diseases for x-ray examinations. Includes radionuclide imaging, angiography, and x-ray tomography. Use for radiographic diagnosis. For magnetic resonance imaging use "diagnosis"; for ultrasonic diagnosis use "ultrasonography." (A, C, F3)
RADIOTHERAPY or RT (83) - Used with disease headings for the therapeutic use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation. It includes the use of radioisotope therapy. (C)
REHABILITATION or RH (83) - Used with disease headings and surgical procedures for restoration of function of the individual. (C, E4, F3)
RISK FACTORS or RF (01) - Used with diseases or disorders to indicate any elements that may predispose an individual to the development of that disease or disorder. (C, F3)
STANDARDS or ST (83) - Used with facilities, personnel, programs, and services for the development, testing, and application of guidelines or standards of adequacy or acceptable performance. Includes standards of practice and health or safety standards in industries or occupations. Used with chemicals or drugs for standards of identification, quality, and potency. (D, E, F4, G-J, L, N)
SURGERY or SU (83) - Used for operative procedures on organs, regions, or tissues for the treatment of diseases, including tissue section by lasers. Excludes transplantation for which "transplantation" is used. (A, C, F3)
SYMPTOMS or SS (96) - Used with diseases and disorders for presenting signs and symptoms or clinical manifestations. (C, F3)
THERAPEUTIC USE or TU (84) - Used with drugs, biological preparations, plants, and physical agents for their use in the prophylaxis and treatment of disease. (B6, D, H)
THERAPY or TH (83) - Used with diseases for therapies other than specific drug therapy, diet therapy, radiotherapy, rehabilitation, or surgery for which subheadings exist. Also used for materials dealing with multiple therapies. (C, F3, P3)
TRANSMISSION or TM (87) - Used with diseases and microbes for the modes of transmission. (B3-5, C)
TRANSPLANTATION or TR (83) - Used with organs, tissues, or cells for transplantation. (A)
TRENDS or TD (83) - Used for the manner in which a subject changes with time, whether past, present, or future. (C, E, F1, F3-4, G1-3, H-I, J1, L, N)
ULTRASONOGRAPHY or US (92) - Used with organs and regions for ultrasonic imaging and with diseases for ultrasonic diagnosis. Does not include ultrasonic therapy. (A, C, F3)
URINE or UR (99) - Used for the presence or analysis of substances in the urine, and also for the examination of, or changes in, the urine in disease. (B2, C, D1-24, F3)
UTILIZATION or UT (83) - Used with procedures, equipment, programs, facilities, and services for discussions of how and how much they are used. (E, F4, G1-3, H-J, L, N, P)
Source: CINAHL Plus with Full Text | Full Text Nursing Journals | EBSCO. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/cinahl-databases/cinahl-plus-with-full-text