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SEM 105, McDaniel, Boyce: Citations

When conducting research it is always important to give credit to authors and creators for their original words, ideas, and creative works.  These tabs will help you navigate citations in MLA style.  

Why Cite? 

When you research a topic you may use information from articles, books, or the Web to support your ideas. However, you must credit the original authors of these sources by citing them. To cite means that you state where you found the information so that others can find the exact item again. In this way we build upon the ideas and knowledge of other people.

Quick Tips:

  • Take clear, accurate notes about where you found specific ideas.
  • Write down the complete citation information for each item you use.
  • Use quotation marks when directly stating another person's words.
  • Always credit original authors for their information and ideas.


Citation Tips

  • Email yourself a copy of any articles or websites you are using.  This ensures you will have the correct information when writing your paper.
  • Use quotation marks when directly stating another person's words.
  • Credit original authors for not just their words, but also their ideas.
  • The Excelsior Online Writing Lab is one of the best sources for learning more about citing and formatting your papers. It features instructional videos that show you how to set up your papers in APA, MLA, and Chicago formats, interactive checklists, and visual support for both in-text documenting and referencing at the end of your paper.


MLA style, developed by the Modern Language Association, is used for research on general topics and literaryMLA 9 criticism. Most instructors in English, foreign languages, and Developmental Studies classes will require you to use MLA style. MLA requires parenthetical citations within the text and a corresponding bibliography or works cited list at the end of the paper. Copies of the MLA Handbook may be obtained through the campus libraries--check the library catalog for availability.

MLA Style (9th Edition)

View our concise MLA Style handout (PDF) and the guide to citing in-text (PDF). 

MLA GuideMLA in text citing

Other Resources

APA style, developed by the American Psychological Association, is used for hard sciences and social sciences, including education. APA uses parenthetical citations within the text and a corresponding bibliography or references list at the end of the paper.

What is a DOI?
A DOI, Digital Object Identifier, is a unique code used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. (It's kind of like your CCAC ID number which is only associated with you!)

What if there isn't a DOI?
No DOI? Just use the URL associated with the article!


APA Style (7th Edition)

View our concise APA Style handout (PDF).

 APA Style

Other Resources

Chicago style is sometimes used for history and the humanities.  Chicago style uses superscript numbers within the text to refer readers to corresponding footnotes and the end of the page.  A bibliography is generally required as well.



Chicago Style (17th Edition)

Here are our concise guides for Chicago Style notes and references (PDF).

Chicago Style

Other Resources

NoodleTools is an online tool for creating works cited lists. Use it with MLA, APA, or Chicago styles. It helps you create your citations, and generates your bibliography. Create folders and store citations for multiple projects.

CCAC provides NoodleTools to current students, faculty and staff.  Contact a librarian if you have any questions.    

Show Me How Video

NoodleTools Get Started Print Guide


Databases and Citations

Many of the Library Databases provide Citation assistance for the articles.  In the Tools area located on the Detailed Record page and the Article page, look for features like "Cite" or "Cite Now!"

Do a final check to make certain that the citation has correct formatting, punctuation, and content!

Katie Wirt

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Katie Wirt
Boyce Campus, N410
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