When you research a topic you may use information from articles, books, or the Web to support your ideas. However, you must credit the original authors of these sources by citing them. To cite means that you state where you found the information so that others can find the exact item again. In this way we build upon the ideas and knowledge of other people.
MLA style, developed by the Modern Language Association, is used for research on general topics and literary criticism. Most instructors in English, foreign languages, and Developmental Studies classes will require you to use MLA style. MLA requires parenthetical citations within the text and a corresponding bibliography or works cited list at the end of the paper. Copies of the MLA Handbook may be obtained through the campus libraries--check the library catalog for availability.
MLA Style (9th Edition)
View our concise MLA Style handout (PDF) and the guide to citing in-text (PDF).
APA style, developed by the American Psychological Association, is used for hard sciences and social sciences, including education. APA uses parenthetical citations within the text and a corresponding bibliography or references list at the end of the paper.
What is a DOI?
A DOI, Digital Object Identifier, is a unique code used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. (It's kind of like your CCAC ID number which is only associated with you!)
What if there isn't a DOI?
No DOI? Just use the URL associated with the article!
APA Style (7th Edition)
View our concise APA Style handout (PDF).
Chicago style is sometimes used for history and the humanities. Chicago style uses superscript numbers within the text to refer readers to corresponding footnotes and the end of the page. A bibliography is generally required as well.
Chicago Style (17th Edition)
Here are our concise guides for Chicago Style notes and references (PDF).
NoodleTools is an online tool for creating works cited lists. Use it with MLA, APA, or Chicago styles. It helps you create your citations, and generates your bibliography. Create folders and store citations for multiple projects.
CCAC provides NoodleTools to current students, faculty and staff. Contact a librarian if you have any questions.
NoodleTools Get Started Print Guide
Databases and Citations
Many of the Library Databases provide Citation assistance for the articles. In the Tools area located on the Detailed Record page and the Article page, look for features like "Cite" or "Cite Now!"
Do a final check to make certain that the citation has correct formatting, punctuation, and content!